The museum was designed in the Modernist style by the Swiss-French architect Le Corbusier. It was named Museum of Knowledge during designing. It was originally a part of a large complex of Cultural Centre of Ahmedabad which had separate pavilions and areas for different subjects like anthropology, natural history, archaeology, monumental sculptures, workshops and depots, folklores in open air. It also included a pavilion for theatre called miracle box. But out of whole planned cultural centre, only museum was built.
It rests on his signature pilotis, that are 3.4 metres (11 ft) high there. The building's exterior is of plain brick with exposed elements of raw concrete (Béton brut) structure. The structural grid is 7 metres (23 ft).
The building is designed to protect against the hot climate. On the roof there are several large basins originally intended as planters. One enters from underneath the building where there is an open court with a large pool and a ramp that leads to the exhibition spaces. The interior spaces are finished in plaster.
The museum is similar to other museum projects by Le Corbusier, such as the "Museum of unlimited extension" project, the National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, and the Government Museum and Art Gallery in Chandigarh, in that the plan is based on a spiral and is designed to be expanded.
Museum have various sections related to history of city, art, photography, Mahatma Gandhi, Indian independence struggle, various religious communities of Ahmedabad. It houses the tallest incense stick of the world of 4.5 m. The building includes a Kite Museum, which includes a collection of kites, photographs, and other artifacts.