Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru, was born in Patna, Bihar, in 1666. He also spent his early years here before moving to Anandpur. Besides being the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, Patna was also honored by visits from Guru Nanak as well as Guru Tegh Bahadur.
It is situated in one of the old quarters of Patna city, once known as Kucha Farrukh Khan, now known as Harmandir Gali. It is regarded as one of the holiest of five Takhts, the seat of the Sikh authority. Two of the five Takhts are located outside Punjab. These are Takht Sri Harmandir Sahib, Patna in Bihar, and Takht Sri Hazoor Sahib at Nanded in Maharashtra. Three Takhts are in Punjab. These are Akal Takht Amritsar, Keshgarh Sahib Anandpur and Sri Damdama Sahib at Talwandi Sabo in Bhatinda district. Besides, there are over one hundred important holy Sikh shrines spread over the length and breadth of the country which are humming with the sacred message of the Sikh Gurus and reminding the people of their teachings. These are visited by thousands of pilgrims throughout the year.
The site where the present Harmandir stands was originally called the haveli of Salis Rai John, who was a great devotee of Guru Nanak. He was so much influenced by the teachings of the Guru that he converted his palatial house into a dharamsala. When Guru Tegh Bahadur visited Patna, he stayed in the same place. A magnificent house was built above the dharamsala of Salis Rai.Mullah Ahmed Bukhari,the author of Mirat-ul-Ahwal Jahan Nama, who stayed at Patna for some time at the close of 18th century, has made a reference to Harmandir.
He writes, "Over the birthplace of Guru Gobind Singh, the Sikhs have raised a public edifice, made it a place of power and strength, and call it 'Harmandir'. It is also called 'Sangat' and is held in great esteem and veneration. They have made it a place of pilgrimage. Maharaja Ranjit Singh started the work of reconstructing the Harmandir in 1839 following destruction by fire, but did not survive to see the new structure. Again in 1934, when the entire Bihar was rocked by an earthquake some portion of Harmandir fell down. Construction of the present building was taken up on November 19, 1954 and was completed in about three years.
Some relics of the tenth Guru are also preserved in this shrine. Among them is a pangura (cradle) with four stands covered with Golden plates. Guruji during his childhood used to sleep in this cradle. Moreover, four iron arrows, sacred sword of the Master and a pair of his sandals are also preserved. Hukamnamas of Guru Gobind Singh and Guru Tegh Bahadur contained in a book are also kept in this holy Gurdwara.